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Blood Grouping ABO & Rh Typing, EDTA Whole Blood

Number of parameters covered 2

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Synonyms/Also Known as

Blood Group, Rh Factor, ABO

Related tests

Direct Antiglobulin Test, RBC Antibody Screen, Compatibility Testing, Crossmatch, RBC Antibody Identification, HLA Testing

Why get tested?

To determine Blood group and Rh type.

When to get tested?

To know the blood group and Rh typing of an individual, when there is a need for blood transfusion, during blood donation, before or during pregnancy to know the risk of Rh incompatibility of mother with the baby.

Sample required

Blood

Test preparation needed

No special preparation required

About The Test

How is it used
The ABO grouping and Rh typing test determines blood type grouping (A, B, AB, O ) and the Rh factor (positive or negative). A person's blood type is based on the presence or absence of certain antigens on the surface of their red blood cells and certain antibodies in the plasma. ABO antigens are poorly expresses at birth, increase gradually in strength and become fully expressed around 1 year of age. Blood grouping and typing is used to determine the compatibility between donar and recipient of blood or its components. Compatibility of blood grouping and typing is very important as incompatible blood transfusions leads to fatal outcome. For example, if recipient blood group is group O, he has both antibodies A and B in his blood, and if he is transfused with A, B or AB blood group, the antibodies present in the recipients blood react with the donars red blood cells which has the antigens, destroy them and that results in serious complications. Similar reactions occur when a Rh positive donar gives blood to a Rh negative recipient, but the complications are not seen mostly during the current transfusion and occur with the future transfusion. Example the Rh typing is important during pregnancy, especially if the mothers blood group is Rh negative and fathers blood group is Rh positive, because in such situations the fetus may have Rh positive blood group and hence the mother can develop antibodies against the fetus red blood cells which contain antigens. These antibodies may cross the placenta and destroy the baby blood cells, resulting in haemolytic disease of new born or fetus. The result of this incompatability may not be seen in the current pregnancy but can effect the future pregnancy. To prevent this, the Rh negative mother is given Rh immunoglobulins during pregnancy and immediately after delivery. These immunoglobulins will mask the fetus Rh antigens and prevent such complications. Blood grouping and typing is also important in donors and recipients of organ or bone marrow transplantation, along with HLA testing.

FAQ’s

1. Who are universal blood donors and recipients?

Blood group O negative is considered as universal blood donors as they do not have any antigens, that is antigen A, B or Rh. The blood group AB positive is considered as universal blood recipient as they do not have any antibodies in their blood to react with the antigens.

2. What are the other types of blood groups?

Other than ABO and Rh blood grouping, there are many other minor groups like Kell, Kidd, Duffy etc. As incompatibility is more common with ABO and Rh blood groups it is significant unlike the other groups.

3. Why is it important to know Blood group?

It is important to know a person’s blood group, to prevent antigen antibody reactions and the complications associated with it. If a person’s blood group B (which contains B antigens and A antibodies) and he receives blood group A (which contains A antigens and B antibodies), the recipient’s A antibodies reacts with A antigens of donor, destroy them and hence results in complications.